Research methods vs Methodology
- Research method refers to all the methods used by the researcher during the course of study.
- Research methodology refers to the scientific understanding of the research methods.
- Research method is all the methods and techniques used for conduction of the research.
Research methods may be put into these three groups.
- Group I – Methods concerned with collection of data.
- Group II – Statistical techniques which are used for establishing relationships between the data and the unknowns;
- Group III – Methods used to evaluate the accuracy of the results obtained.
The Group II & III mentioned above are the analytical tools of research.
At times, a distinction is made between research methods and techniques. Research methods refers to the behaviour and instruments used in selecting and constructing research technique. Research technique refers to the behaviour and instruments used in performing research operations such as making observations, recording data, techniques of processing data and the like. However, in practise the two terms are taken as interchangeable and when we talk of research methods we do, by implication, include research techniques within their compass.
|Library research||Analysis of historical data Analysis of documents||Recording of notes, content analysis, tape and film listening & analysis.Statistical compilation and manipulations, references and abstract guides, content analysis.|
|Field research||Non- participant direct observation Participant -observation |
Mail questionnaire Opinionnaire
Case study and life history
|Observational recording, possible use of tape recorders, photographic techniques.Recording mass behaviour, interview using independent observers in public places.Identification of social and economic background of respondents.Use of attitude scales, projective techniques, use of sociometric scales.Interviewer uses a detailed schedule with open and closed questionsInterviewer focuses attention upon a given experience and its effectsSmall group of respondents are interviewed simultaneouslyUsed as a survey technique for information and for discerning opinion; may be used as a follow up of questionnaire.Cross-sectional collection of data for intensive analysis, longitudinal collection of data of intensive character.|
|Laboratory research||Small group study of random behaviour, play and role analysis.||Use of audio-visual recording devices, use of observers etc|
|Research method||Primary or secondary||Quantitative or Qualitative||When to use|
|Experiment||Primary||Quantitative||To test cause and effect relationship|
|Survey||Primary||Quantitative||To understand general characteristics of population|
|Interview/ Focus group||Primary||Qualitative||To gain in depth understanding of a topic|
|Observation||Primary||Either||To understand how something occurs in its natural settings.|
|Literature review||Secondary||Either||To decide the direction and scope of your research, or to evaluate trends within a research topic|
|Case study||Either||Either||To gain in depth understanding of a specific group or context, or when you don’t have the resource for a large study|
Reference Kothari, C. R. (2013). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques (English, Spanish, French, Italian, German, Japanese, Chinese, Hindi and Korean Edition) (2nd ed.). New York, United States: Macmillan Publishers. Nehru, R. S. S., & Suryanarayana, N. V. S. (2020). Research Methodology. New Delhi , India : APH Publishing Corporation . Scribbr - Your path to academic success. (2019, December 6). Retrieved January 23, 2020, from https://www.scribbr.com/