An overview of the research process
The process of research is summarized in the above video. The students of BHM can do either a descriptive research, case study based research or a empirical research. If you are planning to do an empirical research it is recommended that you start the process in the VII semester itself.
How is descriptive research different from an empirical research?
There are several difference between the two types of research:
|Aspect||Descriptive research||Empirical research|
|Objective||Understand the status (“What”)||Understand the reason for the status (“Why”)|
|Knowledge impact||Review the existing knowledge||Create new knowledge|
|Duration||Short duration||Long duration|
|Data||Mostly secondary data||Mostly primary data|
|Sampling||Non probability sampling||Probability sampling|
|Bias||High bias||Bias is minimised|
|Data analysis||Descriptive statistics||Inferential statistics|
The difference between the descriptive research & empirical research can be summarized as shown in the above table.
It may be noted that the descriptive research is the first stage of the research process, since descriptive research is used to understand what is the present status of an event. For example:
A detailed study to understand the most sold variety of pizza at Pala town, with reference to retail outlets.E.g. 1: Descriptive study
In the above example, the objective is to understand which variety of pizza is being sold more, the research is focused on “What is selling more” & not on why is it selling more.
Incase of an empirical research, the objective of the research is to find out why a particular event is happening. For example:
An experimental study on the preference of pizza among the people of Pala town, with reference to retail outlets.E.g. 2 : Emperical study
Thus it can be seen that; in case of example 1, the research can be completed with the aid of secondary data sources. However, primary data can also be included via survey methods (Questionnaire survey, Interviews ) & the foucs of the research is to describe which type of pizza is being consumed. In case of example 2 the research is a continuation of the example 1; however the focus of the research is to find out why people like a particular pizza.
Notes for reference
APA Format Citation Guide
APA format is one of the common formats for citing sources among other well known citation styles such as MLA and Chicago.
APA citation has two parts:
- In text citation – The intext citation only contains the author’s last name and year of publication, e.g. (Vijay,2020). This identifies and helps locate the full source in the reference list
- Reference list – full publication details listed alphabetically. This provides all information that is required to find the source, e.g. Vijay, A. (2020, February 01). citing sources in APA format. retrieved March 01, 2021, from https://www.theskullsession.com/notes
Different ways of APA in-text citations
Molecular gastronomy is defined as…….. (Vijay, 2015)
Molecular gastronomy is defined as …… (Vijay & George,2015)
more than two authors
Molecular gastronomy is defined as…….. (Vijay,George,Thomas, Johnson, 2015)
alternatively the above citation can be shortened as
Molecular gastronomy is defined as………… (Vijay et al., 2015)
When an excerpt from another source is copied; it should be place in between “quotation marks”. In case of quoting is is required to add the page number to the in-text citation.
“Molecular gastronomy is a multidisciplinary approach, which relies on scientific study of the food being produced” (This,2007,p.5)
No Author – Corporate / Organisational Websites
When the source do not have an author mentioned as in case of wikipedia, or organisation’s websites such as WHO, Ministry of tourism etc; the name of the source and the year can be used to cite.
Molecular gastronomy is a subdiscipline of food science that seeks to investigate the physical and chemical transformations of ingredients that occur in cooking. Its program includes three areas, as cooking was recognized to have three components: social, artistic, and technical. (Wikipedia, 2020)
APA reference page
APA reference page is included after the main text, and contains the full reference of all sources cited in the text. The sources are ordered alphabetically based on the author’s last name (or on the title for source with no author)
According to the type of reference source there are different format, ie. based on whether the source is website, journal, book. Few examples are given below:
Davidovich-Pinhas, M. (2016). Oleogels: a promising tool for delivery of hydrophobic bioactive molecules. Therapeutic Delivery, 7(1), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.4155/tde.15.83
Pehlivanoğlu, H., Demirci, M., Toker, O. S., Konar, N., Karasu, S., & Sagdic, O. (2017). Oleogels, a promising structured oil for decreasing saturated fatty acid concentrations: Production and food-based applications. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 58(8), 1330–1341. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309735156
Pușcaș, A. (2020, January 8). Oleogels in Food: A Review of Current and Potential Applications. Retrieved February 14, 2020, from https://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/9/1/70
Rogers, M. A., Strober, T., Bot, A., Toro – Vazquez, J. F., Stortz, T., & Marangoni, A. G. (2014, June 1). Edible oleogels in molecular gastronomy. Retrieved February 14, 2020, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878450X14000043
Stortz, T. A., Zetzl, A. K., Barbut, S., Cattaruzza, A., & Marangoni, A. G. (2012). Edible oleogels in food products to help maximize health benefits and improve nutritional profiles. Lipid Technology, 24(7), 151–154. https://doi.org/10.1002/lite.201200205
Vartiainen, J., Aksela, M., & Hopia, A. (2013, May 1). NDL India: Introduction to molecular gastronomy and to its applications in science education. Retrieved February 14, 2020, from https://ndl.iitkgp.ac.in/document/bkFnM25XN1BvcGFNVmlOeUgwQVRqbFFNbGh3WnN4bmxBeDNSR1FIOGtNdz0
- Text must be double spaced
- Margin must be set to one inch (2.54 cm)
- Use a left-aligned running head with a shortened title on all pages
- Time New Roman in 12 pt is the recommended font
The word plagiarism is derived from the Latin word, plagiare, which means “to kidnap.” Now, plagiarism refers to copying someone else’s work, without giving the author credit. It is fair and ethical to give proper acknowledgement to the original author in your research assignment.
How to avoid plagiarism?
- Save the sources; so that the formatting of the citation can be done in the final stage of compiling
- When you quote or paraphrase text, temporarily highlight it to remind yourself that you need to add the correct citation. Also ensure that you have cited all the sources, both in-text and reference list.
- Run a plagiarism checker
Online APA citation generator
Following citation generators are recommended for your project, they are free and efficient. You may create an account to save your citations.
Why use citation generators?
Citation generator can automatically create the reference list and citation in the appropriate format, thus saving your time.
Zotero – Personal Research Assistant
Zotero is a very useful free software which can be used to gather and create citation and bibliography across all word processing platforms – Ms. Office, Google Docs, Libre office, Apache Open office, Latex etc. Ms.office has citation and bibliography built in however, all the data has to be input manually. Installing zotero can fill in that gap, by pulling in and organising data automatically.
- The approaches to reasoning for research – Inductive vs DeductiveWhat are the differences between the approaches? There are two approaches in reasoning for research. Accordingly, the characteristics of …
- Data Analysis Methods useful for HRPWhat is the meaning of analysis? By analysis we mean the computation of indices or measures along with searching …
- Overview of the research tools – Advantages and DisadvantagesThe research tools are the once used for gathering primary data for any research. Here is a summary of …
- How to write research methodology for HRP?One of the major hurdle in the process of hospitality research project is understanding how to plan and write …
- Which are the methodology applicable for a BHM student’s research?Research methods vs Methodology Research method refers to all the methods used by the researcher during the course of …