The Skull Session

Hospitality Research Project For BHM

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An overview of the research process

The process of research is summarized in the above video. The students of BHM can do either a descriptive research, case study based research or a empirical research. If you are planning to do an empirical research it is recommended that you start the process in the VII semester itself.

How is descriptive research different from an empirical research?

There are several difference between the two types of research:

AspectDescriptive researchEmpirical research
ObjectiveUnderstand the status (“What”)Understand the reason for the status (“Why”)
Knowledge impactReview the existing knowledgeCreate new knowledge
DurationShort durationLong duration
DataMostly secondary dataMostly primary data
SamplingNon probability samplingProbability sampling
Sample sizeSmallBig
BiasHigh biasBias is minimised
Data analysisDescriptive statistics Inferential statistics

The difference between the descriptive research & empirical research can be summarized as shown in the above table.

It may be noted that the descriptive research is the first stage of the research process, since descriptive research is used to understand what is the present status of an event. For example:

A detailed study to understand the most sold variety of pizza at Pala town, with reference to retail outlets.

E.g. 1: Descriptive study

In the above example, the objective is to understand which variety of pizza is being sold more, the research is focused on “What is selling more” & not on why is it selling more.

Incase of an empirical research, the objective of the research is to find out why a particular event is happening. For example:

An experimental study on the preference of pizza among the people of Pala town, with reference to retail outlets.

E.g. 2 : Emperical study

Thus it can be seen that; in case of example 1, the research can be completed with the aid of secondary data sources. However, primary data can also be included via survey methods (Questionnaire survey, Interviews ) & the foucs of the research is to describe which type of pizza is being consumed. In case of example 2 the research is a continuation of the example 1; however the focus of the research is to find out why people like a particular pizza.

Notes for reference


General Guidelines

APA Format Citation Guide

APA format is one of the common formats for citing sources among other well known citation styles such as MLA and Chicago.

APA citation has two parts:

  1. In text citation – The intext citation only contains the author’s last name and year of publication, e.g. (Vijay,2020). This identifies and helps locate the full source in the reference list
  2. Reference list – full publication details listed alphabetically. This provides all information that is required to find the source, e.g. Vijay, A. (2020, February 01). citing sources in APA format. retrieved March 01, 2021, from https://www.theskullsession.com/notes

Different ways of APA in-text citations

Single author

Molecular gastronomy is defined as…….. (Vijay, 2015)

Two authors

Molecular gastronomy is defined as …… (Vijay & George,2015)

more than two authors

Molecular gastronomy is defined as…….. (Vijay,George,Thomas, Johnson, 2015)

alternatively the above citation can be shortened as

Molecular gastronomy is defined as………… (Vijay et al., 2015)

Quotes

When an excerpt from another source is copied; it should be place in between “quotation marks”. In case of quoting is is required to add the page number to the in-text citation.

“Molecular gastronomy is a multidisciplinary approach, which relies on scientific study of the food being produced” (This,2007,p.5)

No Author – Corporate / Organisational Websites

When the source do not have an author mentioned as in case of wikipedia, or organisation’s websites such as WHO, Ministry of tourism etc; the name of the source and the year can be used to cite.

Molecular gastronomy is a subdiscipline of food science that seeks to investigate the physical and chemical transformations of ingredients that occur in cooking. Its program includes three areas, as cooking was recognized to have three components: social, artistic, and technical. (Wikipedia, 2020)

APA reference page

APA reference page is included after the main text, and contains the full reference of all sources cited in the text. The sources are ordered alphabetically based on the author’s last name (or on the title for source with no author)

According to the type of reference source there are different format, ie. based on whether the source is website, journal, book. Few examples are given below:

Davidovich-Pinhas, M. (2016). Oleogels: a promising tool for delivery of hydrophobic bioactive molecules. Therapeutic Delivery7(1), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.4155/tde.15.83

Pehlivanoğlu, H., Demirci, M., Toker, O. S., Konar, N., Karasu, S., & Sagdic, O. (2017). Oleogels, a promising structured oil for decreasing saturated fatty acid concentrations: Production and food-based applications. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition58(8), 1330–1341. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309735156

Pușcaș, A. (2020, January 8). Oleogels in Food: A Review of Current and Potential Applications. Retrieved February 14, 2020, from https://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/9/1/70

Rogers, M. A., Strober, T., Bot, A., Toro – Vazquez, J. F., Stortz, T., & Marangoni, A. G. (2014, June 1). Edible oleogels in molecular gastronomy. Retrieved February 14, 2020, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878450X14000043

Stortz, T. A., Zetzl, A. K., Barbut, S., Cattaruzza, A., & Marangoni, A. G. (2012). Edible oleogels in food products to help maximize health benefits and improve nutritional profiles. Lipid Technology24(7), 151–154. https://doi.org/10.1002/lite.201200205

Vartiainen, J., Aksela, M., & Hopia, A. (2013, May 1). NDL India: Introduction to molecular gastronomy and to its applications in science education. Retrieved February 14, 2020, from https://ndl.iitkgp.ac.in/document/bkFnM25XN1BvcGFNVmlOeUgwQVRqbFFNbGh3WnN4bmxBeDNSR1FIOGtNdz0

APA formatting

Avoid Plagiarism!

The word plagiarism is derived from the Latin word, plagiare, which means “to kidnap.” Now, plagiarism refers to copying someone else’s work, without giving the author credit. It is fair and ethical to give proper acknowledgement to the original author in your research assignment.

How to avoid plagiarism?

Online APA citation generator

Following citation generators are recommended for your project, they are free and efficient. You may create an account to save your citations.

Why use citation generators?

Citation generator can automatically create the reference list and citation in the appropriate format, thus saving your time.

Zotero – Personal Research Assistant

Zotero is a very useful free software which can be used to gather and create citation and bibliography across all word processing platforms – Ms. Office, Google Docs, Libre office, Apache Open office, Latex etc. Ms.office has citation and bibliography built in however, all the data has to be input manually. Installing zotero can fill in that gap, by pulling in and organising data automatically.