Hospitality Research Project For BHM

Notes for reference

General Guidelines

APA Format Citation Guide

APA format is one of the common formats for citing sources among other well known citation styles such as MLA and Chicago.

APA citation has two parts:

  1. In text citation – The intext citation only contains the author’s last name and year of publication, e.g. (Vijay,2020). This identifies and helps locate the full source in the reference list
  2. Reference list – full publication details listed alphabetically. This provides all information that is required to find the source, e.g. Vijay, A. (2020, February 01). citing sources in APA format. retrieved March 01, 2021, from

Different ways of APA in-text citations

Single author

Molecular gastronomy is defined as…….. (Vijay, 2015)

Two authors

Molecular gastronomy is defined as …… (Vijay & George,2015)

more than two authors

Molecular gastronomy is defined as…….. (Vijay,George,Thomas, Johnson, 2015)

alternatively the above citation can be shortened as

Molecular gastronomy is defined as………… (Vijay et al., 2015)


When an excerpt from another source is copied; it should be place in between “quotation marks”. In case of quoting is is required to add the page number to the in-text citation.

“Molecular gastronomy is a multidisciplinary approach, which relies on scientific study of the food being produced” (This,2007,p.5)

No Author – Corporate / Organisational Websites

When the source do not have an author mentioned as in case of wikipedia, or organisation’s websites such as WHO, Ministry of tourism etc; the name of the source and the year can be used to cite.

Molecular gastronomy is a subdiscipline of food science that seeks to investigate the physical and chemical transformations of ingredients that occur in cooking. Its program includes three areas, as cooking was recognized to have three components: social, artistic, and technical. (Wikipedia, 2020)

APA reference page

APA reference page is included after the main text, and contains the full reference of all sources cited in the text. The sources are ordered alphabetically based on the author’s last name (or on the title for source with no author)

According to the type of reference source there are different format, ie. based on whether the source is website, journal, book. Few examples are given below:

Davidovich-Pinhas, M. (2016). Oleogels: a promising tool for delivery of hydrophobic bioactive molecules. Therapeutic Delivery7(1), 1–3.

Pehlivanoğlu, H., Demirci, M., Toker, O. S., Konar, N., Karasu, S., & Sagdic, O. (2017). Oleogels, a promising structured oil for decreasing saturated fatty acid concentrations: Production and food-based applications. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition58(8), 1330–1341. Retrieved from

Pușcaș, A. (2020, January 8). Oleogels in Food: A Review of Current and Potential Applications. Retrieved February 14, 2020, from

Rogers, M. A., Strober, T., Bot, A., Toro – Vazquez, J. F., Stortz, T., & Marangoni, A. G. (2014, June 1). Edible oleogels in molecular gastronomy. Retrieved February 14, 2020, from

Stortz, T. A., Zetzl, A. K., Barbut, S., Cattaruzza, A., & Marangoni, A. G. (2012). Edible oleogels in food products to help maximize health benefits and improve nutritional profiles. Lipid Technology24(7), 151–154.

Vartiainen, J., Aksela, M., & Hopia, A. (2013, May 1). NDL India: Introduction to molecular gastronomy and to its applications in science education. Retrieved February 14, 2020, from

APA formatting

  • Text must be double spaced
  • Margin must be set to one inch (2.54 cm)
  • Use a left-aligned running head with a shortened title on all pages
  • Time New Roman in 12 pt is the recommended font

Avoid Plagiarism!

The word plagiarism is derived from the Latin word, plagiare, which means “to kidnap.” Now, plagiarism refers to copying someone else’s work, without giving the author credit. It is fair and ethical to give proper acknowledgement to the original author in your research assignment.

How to avoid plagiarism?

  • Save the sources; so that the formatting of the citation can be done in the final stage of compiling
  • When you quote or paraphrase text, temporarily highlight it to remind yourself that you need to add the correct citation. Also ensure that you have cited all the sources, both in-text and reference list.
  • Run a plagiarism checker

Online APA citation generator

Following citation generators are recommended for your project, they are free and efficient. You may create an account to save your citations.

Why use citation generators?

Citation generator can automatically create the reference list and citation in the appropriate format, thus saving your time.

Zotero – Personal Research Assistant

Zotero is a very useful free software which can be used to gather and create citation and bibliography across all word processing platforms – Ms. Office, Google Docs, Libre office, Apache Open office, Latex etc. has citation and bibliography built in however, all the data has to be input manually. Installing zotero can fill in that gap, by pulling in and organising data automatically.

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